New York City Tends to Become Carbon Neutral by 2050

New York City Tends to Become Carbon Neutral by 2050

This different path of the home city of the United States actually aligns with the ambitious aim of the Paris accord i.e. bordering global warming to 1.5C.

And for this, de Blasio introduced a citywide plan, outlining the measures to be taken in the first three years, and which are to be taken to cut emissions below 2005 levels i.e. by 80% by 2050. The plan; also known as 1.5C – Joining New York City with the Paris Climate Accord – calls to offset all the residual carbon pollution by 2050.

However, to achieve the target of carbon neutrality, in the next three decades, New York tends to lead the ‘global protocol’ development as per the plan. And the plan may also include carbon sequestration, large-scale renewable and carbon offsets to make up for the remaining carbon pollution.

Executing the Different Path: New York Carbon Neutrality Target by 2050

In order to execute the plan and to continue achieving the targeted results, the mayor is calling up every agency of the city government to make some strategies that would help to comply with the target of 1.5C.

De Blasio stated: “Big problems require big solutions – and New Yorkers are already hard at work to meet the most ambitious goals of the Paris Agreement. In the Trump era, cities have to lead the way when it comes to fighting climate change. Hotter summers and powerful storms made worse by climate change are an existential threat to a coastal city like ours, which is why we need to act now.”

Showing confidence in the New York plans, the executive director of C40 cities group, Mark Watts, stated that the plan is nonetheless, a leading example in the world in terms of evidence-based planning.

Short Term Target to Meet the Big Challenge

New York’s target constitutes of many short-term targets that are expected to be achieved in the coming years. The plan focuses on achieving some specific actions by the year 2020, also covering building codes, efficiency, and transport and energy production. Also, the plan aims at heralding the electric car advent and announcing the budget of $10 million in the account of fast charging hubs and that too, in all the five boroughs by the year 2018. And in next five to seven years, the city aims at installing almost 50 citywide hubs.

According to the Daniel Zarrilli, Climate Policy Senior Director;

“In the face of federal inaction on climate change, it is now more important than ever for cities like New York to step up to fulfill the Paris Agreement,”

Ever since Trump has taken the presidency of the US, almost 200 states, nations, and cities, which also include New York City, have successfully signed up to a coalition majorly led by the Jerry Brown, governor of California.

This coalition aims at developing plans that are in line with the goals of the Paris climate accord and that too, by calling on the signatories.

Australia Has Great Potential to Get Electrified In Just Two Decades

According to the researchers’ analysis at the ANU – Australian National University – Australia is capable of storing a lot more renewable energy, even thousand times more than it would conceivably ever need.

The engineering professor of ANU – Andrew Blakers- conducted a study and visited the hydro pump sites. After the analysis, he confidently concluded that there are almost 22,000 locations across Australia that are extremely suitable for the purpose.

The professor suggested that even if Australia utilizes a tiny fraction of these locations, the country will be able to transit 100% renewable power in just two decades.
“No matter where you are in Australia, you will find a good pumped hydro site not very far away from where you, or your wind or your solar farm is located. We only need to about one or two dozen to support a 100 percent renewable electricity grid” – said Blakers

The fellow engineering researcher Mathew Stocks also said that the pumped hydro facility is capable of providing maximum power in between five hours in one day. And power can easily and quickly be dispatched to the grid in times of need.
Dr. Stock stated;

“It can go from zero to full power in about one minute”

The pumped hydro technology is not new

The system of pumped hydro in itself is not new, in 1970 the same facility was started at the power station – Tamut 3, at Talbingo in New South Wales.

Besides this, pumped hydro technology is being used by many other countries and is widespread in the alpine parts of Italy and Europe. Countries like France, Germany and the Scandinavian countries such as Norway, as well as the United States and Japan, are too, making use of this technology.

Blakers believes that if the investment in terms of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind increases across Australia, the pumped hydro storage need will grow.

“We have so little solar and wind in the system at the moment that we don’t need the storage. Maybe now South Australia, at 50 percent wind and solar PV, is just getting to the stage where it does need either strong interconnection or a pumped hydro or both. But the other states will catch up and will be at the 50 percent level by the early 2020s I think, so they also need to start planning with pumped hydro now.”- said Blakers

Australia can become completely electrified in just two decades

Both the engineering professors found that the density of these pumped hydro sites is mostly in New South Wales. They estimated that the potential of these sites is to create 29,000 giga watt hours of storage capacity across as many sites as 8,600.

However, Josh Frydenberg – Energy and Environment Minister – welcomed the findings and confirmed that the Government has already been delivering major expansions in terms of the Snowy Hydro scheme along with ongoing feasibility studies in South Australia, Tasmania, and Queensland.

He further indicated that the Australian government is striving for many flexible capacity projects which include pumped hydro along with new and priority funding for large-scale storage.

Australian Government Denies Claim and Reveals Joint Action Plan with China

The Chinese invitation to issue a formal joint statement with regards to climate change was rejected by the Turnbull government earlier this year. Meanwhile, Greenpeace claimed that Australia vetoed the extraordinary step in the emerging international role of Asian power, in curbing the greenhouse gas emissions.

However, the claim was strongly denied by the Australian government and they stated that the energy departments of both countries were actually working for a ‘joint action plan’ with regards to climate change and that too, as one of their responsible commitments of Paris Agreement.

According to Li Shuo, the senior advisor of climate change at Greenpeace East Asia, the government silently knocked back the offer during the state visit of Premier Li Keqiang to Australia in last March.

Mr. Li claimed that the offer suggested; China is now ‘diplomatically proactive’ unlike previously, where the country was at the receiving end of offers from the United States and the European Union to outline mutual climate change commitments.

Mr. Li called the offer ‘very very significant’.

The Uncertainty after the Election of Donald Trump

Mr.Li observed that the offer would have been a strong political signal throughout the international community. And that too, in the middle of uncertainty which was triggered by President Donald Trump’s election, which has actually wound back the leadership of America on climate change, and initiated the withdrawing process of the United States from the Paris Climate Change Agreement.

Mr. Li said “The Chinese delegation with Li Keqiang came with the proposal but that didn’t get the green light from the Australian side. It was clearly the intention from the Chinese side to build up international climate momentum. I think the proposed bilateral statement was part of that effort to send a signal back to the rest of the world and primarily the US.”

Mr. Li claimed to receive this information from the figure directly involved in the Chinese government.
However, the Australian government’s spokesperson said that Australia “did not decline an offer from the Chinese government earlier this year to make a joint statement on climate change” and said that the March leaders’ meeting was ‘highly successful’.

The spokesperson further added, that both the states also “discussed ways to strengthen bilateral co-operation and action on climate change”.

“This included opportunities to support the implementation of the Paris agreement through a joint action plan between China’s National Development and Reform Commission and the Australian Department of the Environment and Energy. These discussions are ongoing,” added the spokesperson.

Nonetheless, seizing the American withdrawal opportunity, Mr. Li’s regime aims at more a prominent international role in terms of climate change. And for this, the state is stepping up and cooperating with the other nations along with pursuing some domestic measures. These efforts include cancelling numerous projects of coal-power, national emissions trading schemes and rapid development renewable power.

As the debate continues, the fact that Australia has great potential to contribute to climate change is undeniable. Australia has been a great supporter of the Paris Accord, and it takes the challenge of climate change as one of the many issues which do not respect national borders.

European Climate Change – Portuguese Children Takes a Step

The failure of European countries in addressing the climate change issue has become more severe. Recently, the world witnessed the incident of a deadly forest fire in the central Portugal -Leiria region that not only left thousands of people injured but also killed more than 50 people.

As a result, Portuguese schoolchildren of the affected area, which were also victimized in that deadly forest fire, are now seeking to crowdfund in order to sue almost 47 European countries.

The step is taken to allege the failure of the state in tackling the prevailing issue of climate change that is now threatening their right to live, even more frequently.

Portuguese schoolchildren crowdfunding – what to expect!

The bid was raised on the Crowd Justice platform and has already been supported by the GLAN – Global Legal Action Network. They are hoping for an initial £35,000 in order to facilitate the case through the European Court of Human Rights.

The lawyers of the case will seek a ruling from the judiciary that all the sued countries must strengthen their policies of emission reduction significantly, and commit that most of the fossil fuel reserves will be existing in the ground.

“This case intends to build on the successes which have been achieved through climate change litigation across the world so far. It will be unique because it will be the first case in which multiple governments are brought before a court at the one time in relation to their failure to properly tackle climate change.
Climate change poses a major and increasingly worsening threat to a number of human rights and governments in Europe are simply not doing enough to address it.”
–Says Marc Willers – lead council – QC of Garden Court Chambers

While the lack of measures to tackle climate change issues have already been claimed as the main cause of this forest fire eruption, a 14-year-old child, also a part of group said;

“Climate change causes many problems, but if I had to name the ones that worry me the most, it would be the sea level rise, which leads to the destruction of shores and infrastructure such as dams, roads and houses, and also the increase in the number of forest fires that we’ve been observing lately – especially this summer, as the fires caused many deaths and left our country in mourning.”

Nations likely to be targeted by legal action

If legal action is taken against the case, it will target almost 47 European countries that are also the major emitters and include Ireland, UK, France, and Germany. All of them are responsible collectively for almost 15% of emissions on the global level along with holding a huge proportion of known reserves of fossil fuel.

While there is an urgent need of addressing these natural calamities, many countries all around the world need some serious adjustment to their prevalent policies of climate change.

No matter how the case is executed, the decision of the European Court of Human Rights is ultimately going to be binding for these states.

Satellite Shows the Sea Ice Extent of the Arctic Reaching Eight Lowest

According to the report published by NASA and NSIDC – National Snow and Ice Data Center at the Colorado University, the ice in the Arctic Sea has reached it’s yearly lowest extent recently.
The NASA and NSIDC analyzed the data received via satellite which showed that at 4.64 million sq. kilometres (1.79 million sq. miles), the ice of the Arctic Sea’s minimum extent is the lowest (positioning eighth)considering the long-term and consistent satellite record which actually started in 1978.

Arctic sea ice is the planet’s air conditioner

The ice in the Arctic sea, the frozen layer of seawater that covers the vast area of the Arctic Ocean along with the neighbouring areas, is commonly referred as the air conditioner of the planet. This is because the ice surface bounces back the solar energy into space which eventually cools down the globe.

The ice cap of the sea varies with the season, shrinking in the summer and spring and growing in the winter and autumn. However, since the1970s, the minimum extent of summertime that generally occurs in the month of September has now decreased and at a rapid rate due to increasing temperatures.

As per the statistics of this year, the Arctic temperature has been a bit moderate, considering such high latitudes. Also, it was better and cooler than the average of other regions. Indeed, the minimum extent of sea ice in 2017 is 610,000 sq. miles that make around 1.58 million sq. kilometres below the average minimum in between 1981-2010.

According to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center senior climate scientist – Clair Parkinson – in Greenbelt Maryland;

“How much ice is left at the end of summer in any given year depends on both the state of the ice cover earlier in the year and the weather conditions affecting the ice, “The weather conditions have not been particularly noteworthy this summer. The fact that we still ended up with low sea ice extent is because the baseline ice conditions today are worse than the baseline 38 years ago.”

The effects of low Arctic ice

With the lowest Arctic ice records in 2012, 2016 and 2007, we faced unusual weather conditions. These climate conditions included strong storms in the summer that severely hammered the cover of ice and also increased the melting.

“In all of those cases, the weather conditions contributed to the reduced ice coverage. But if the exact same weather system had occurred three decades ago, it is very unlikely that it would have caused as much damage to the sea ice cover, because back then the ice was thicker and it more completely covered the region, hence making it more able to withstand storms,” – further added by Parkinson.

On the other end, Antarctica is now heading to the year’s maximum sea ice that commonly occurs in October.

Hence, adding the Arctic and Antarctic extents of sea ice month wise and as per the records of the satellite, Earth is losing sea ice since 1970. In fact, every month this year from January until August; there was a monthly record of low sea ice, as confirmed by Parkinson.

Global Rising Sea Levels Not Uniform: NASA

The latest NASA study revealed a new climate-change phenomenon that would help scientists predict future sea levels. When ice glaciers melt, they cause ‘fingerprints’, demonstrating that sea levels vary around the world due to massive changes in water storage on ice caps and continents.

Scientists are now convinced that they can predict the levels at which sea levels would rise from the melting glaciers. The findings showed that melting ice caps can significantly alter the gravity field – that is, the proportion of water that accumulates around the glaciers, away from ocean waters. When an ice cap melts, the heavy load of the glacier is lifted off the Earth.

The loss of ice mass from glaciers results in the ocean water moving further away from ice caps. The sea levels rise from the resulting melting glaciers. This change was recorded to be highest at 52% in Florida and California more than any other places. Furthermore, the most prone areas include those between Greenland and Antarctica, from where ice glaciers either break down into icebergs or ‘meltwater.’

Some countries would be affected more than others; the hardest hit were those close to the middle and lower latitudes. The data generated from GRACE satellite estimated 1.8 millimetres’ rise in sea level per year, with only 30% coming from the mountain glaciers.

Harvard graduates Carling Hay and Eric Morrow stated that the statistical method – Kalmon Smoother – could be used to determine where the glaciers are melting. A fuel for the fire, skeptics of climate change claim that global warming is still a myth since some countries are recording rising sea levels while others are reporting the contrary.
However, this variability in sea levels is further proof that some countries are more hard-hit than others, allowing scientists to ascertain the resulting changes.

A single glacier can cause as much as millions of gallons of water to flow out into the ocean; thus, increasing the proportion of meltwater to ocean water. This progression results in changes in the salt content, water expansion, ocean circulation and temperatures, which build up over time.

The researchers are now working on expanding their findings from historical data, dating back to 1807. This would show the aggregate estimate about how much the sea levels have risen along with the rate at which the ice glaciers have been collapsing.

Researchers would be able to gather data from tide gauges and variations coming from Greenland and Antarctica.
However, the data is still insufficient to show the current rates at which ice caps are melting and sea levels are rising. Moreover, certain geographical locations may generate less data than other locations.

It still remains to be seen how much the sea levels rose and the rate at which ice sheets melted in the preceding century.

Harvard Professor Jerry Mitrivoca has stated that people residing on or near coastal areas, such as Maryland, need to be particularly aware of the price and dangers of unprecedented increases in sea levels and disintegration of ice glaciers.

France Takes the Lead – Leaving out Trump’s Propositions for Climate Change

When the US government or to be specific, Donald Trump, withdrew the country from the Paris Climate Change Accord, the world started looking towards other nations to enhance global leadership towards climate change.

And in these collective efforts, France is announced to be the first country that will phase out the gas and oil exploration, including production by the year 2040 – according to the draft bill.

This has raised questions in the heads of many. People are making speculations if France is truly stepping up into the era of global leadership towards climate change.

One major aspect of the Paris Climate Change Agreement is to keep the temperature below 2 degrees, striving for 1.5 degrees in actual, as, in the case of failing to do so, a quarter of the marine life, including almost half a billion people will be completely wiped out.

Emmanuel Macron Takes the Lead

According toBen Oquist – Executive Director of Australia Institute – the easiest way to meet the agreement responsibilities, made under the government of Abbott, is to focus on the energy sector. Otherwise, the nation might head down a difficult path in the near future.

He stated to Guardian Australia:

“While political uncertainty continues to shroud energy policy, this new modeling analysis shows higher levels of renewables will be needed if Australia is to meet the Paris targets in an economically efficient manner.Regardless, Australia’s 26-28% emissions targets will have to be lifted in the future if Australia is to meet its obligations to help avoid the 1.5-2 degrees of global warming agreed to in Paris.The reality is that the electricity sector will have to ‘go faster’ in reducing emissions than other sectors of the economy.Outside the electricity arena abatement is more expensive and the technical and political complexities are greater.”

The analysis of the institute takes reforming the energy sector as the easiest path.

“The good news is that renewables are now driving down prices and more renewable in the future will lead to even lower costs. With a combination of a ‘smarter’ grid, storage and demand management, much higher levels of renewable penetration can be achieved with strong reliability and in a more cost-effective way than a coal-dominated system.” – says Oquist

Tough Call for Turnbull Government:

French President Emmanuel Macron stated to the United Nations that the Paris Climate Change Agreement is a pact between future generations. Moreover, he also confirmed to Donald Trump that the climate agreement is not going to be renegotiated on any terms.

However, Macron showed support for the US by stating that the doors of the agreement will remain open if the US wants to re-join the efforts towards climate change, and suggested that he hopes he will convince Trump accordingly.

In past years, Macron has shown exceptional leadership for climate change. He also rebuked Trump after his move of withdrawing the US from the Paris agreement and tweeted; ‘To make planet great again’ which went viral all over the world.

In the continuation of efforts put by France, the country has decided to ban diesel and petrol sale by the year 2040 and was also adopted by the UK to handle air pollution. Whereas Germany is also following the lead, Norway has already decided to sell only plug-in or electric hybrid cars by the year 2025. And with that, China also joins the anti-fossil fuel force.

Whereas President Donald Trump is still trying to figure out the climate issue, France is already leading in the green finance area. France launched a bond costing 7 billion Euros earlier this year – the longest and the largest most issuance of green bonds till today.Also, France has introduced carbon and climate risk reporting as mandatory from the pension fund, institutional investors, and insurance companies.

Wider Impact on Governments, Banks, and Markets

Since France is not a top producer of oil, the major concern is for other markets across the globe. For instance, France has banned fracking, and without considering public opinion, although it had the largest reserves of shale gas in Europe.

Since not much can be expected from the US, other governments must take up the mantle and ban fossil fuel exploration to cut down climate risks. Also, considering the unprecedented hurricanes’ power witnessed in the last month, with Irma, Harvey and now Maria shows that the cost attached to climate change is pretty dramatic.

Hence, the best bet for the world is not to adapt to the changes but to fight the climate change by reducing emissions and that is something that must be achieved fast.

Paris Climate Agreement – Australia is failing to meet the Commitments

The Australian government previously agreed to the Paris Agreement on Climate Change but in just a year’s time, a report has established the fact that Australia is at a risk of falling short of its national emission targets.

Moreover, the situation is being faced without ramping up the shift of the electricity sector towards renewable energy.

The report concluded that for electricity generation by the year 2030, Australia would need at least 66% – 75% renewable energy in order to meet the commitments of the Paris Climate Agreement.

If not, they are likely to face a delay in the necessary transition, increasing final cost to the economy.

This issue needs to be addressed with the right measures so that the burden of emission reduction is not transferred to other sectors such as agriculture or manufacturing.

As per the agreement, Australia is supposed to cut down carbon emissions by almost 28% below 2005 figures. Considering that; the energy sector of Australia accounts for at least 35% of Australia’s emission – having a big part to play in reducing emissions.

Australia Aims at Passing Down the Emission Burden:

According to Ben Oquist – Executive Director of Australia Institute – the easiest way to meet the agreement responsibilities, made under the government of Abbott, is to focus on the energy sector. Otherwise, the nation might head down a difficult path in the near future.

He stated to Guardian Australia:

“While political uncertainty continues to shroud energy policy, this new modeling analysis shows higher levels of renewables will be needed if Australia is to meet the Paris targets in an economically efficient manner.Regardless, Australia’s 26-28% emissions targets will have to be lifted in the future if Australia is to meet its obligations to help avoid the 1.5-2 degrees of global warming agreed to in Paris.The reality is that the electricity sector will have to ‘go faster’ in reducing emissions than other sectors of the economy. Outside the electricity, arena abatement is more expensive and the technical and political complexities are greater.”

The analysis of the institute takes reforming the energy sector as the easiest path.

“The good news is that renewables are now driving down prices and more renewable in the future will lead to even lower costs. With a combination of a ‘smarter’ grid, storage and demand management, much higher levels of renewable penetration can be achieved with strong reliability and in a more cost-effective way than a coal-dominated system.” – says Oquist

Tough Call for Turnbull Government:

The findings of the report come at a very critical time for the government. Being under attack from within, the Turnbull government seems to be stuck in a dangerous no-man’s land regarding both the renewable energy policy and the climate.

Such uncertainties with regards to policy settings can also affect the investment and might increase the capital cost, with the flow of effects coming on the electricity price in the market.

While the government claims to be consistent in putting efforts to meet the commitments of the emission target, it still remains to be seen if the Australian government chooses to meet the agreement in the hard or the easy way.

Leonardo DiCaprio Takes a Big Move towards Climate Change

Climate change has taken over a lot of countries in terms of the severe consequences that are causing the deaths of many. As the years pass by, these natural calamities are increasing in frequency worldwide!

However, a lack of focus and adequate measures in addressing the prevailing issue of climate change is considered solely responsible, for these deadly events.

As a matter of fact, while many countries are already handling the climate change concern in various binding ways such as Paris Agreement, some are least bothered to make any contribution.

Speaking of which, the famous actor Leonardo DiCaprio also set his foot in by announcing to give out almost 20 million dollars, from his running foundation to tackle the climate change effects.

The provided huge sum is likely to be shared across more than 100 organizations which are supporting marine conservation, wildlife protection, and other climate change programs.

The Big Move by the Oscar Winner

The contributed sum to tackle climate issue may not be enough to completely eradicate the issue or to reduce its effect immensely but nonetheless; it emphasizes on the need of addressing the climate issue at a larger platform globally – especially when we witnessed Oscar winner, making such a huge effort towards the issue that is neglected by many other countries.

The granted sum is so far the largest amount that has ever been donated by Leonardo’sfoundation and that makes the total given out amount almost 60m since the foundation was set up in the year 1998.

While attending a conference on climate change at Yale University – DiCaprio stated;

“We are proud to support the work of over 100 organizations at home and abroad, these grantees are active on the ground, protecting our oceans, forests and endangered species for future generations – and tackling the urgent, existential challenges of climate change.”

These grants are focused on covering the six major areas as follows;

  1. Climate change
  2. Landscape and wildlife conservation
  3. Ocean conversation and marine life
  4. Innovative solutions
  5. Indigenous rights
  6. California climate change program

DiCaprio further stated that;

“Our challenge is to find new ways to power our lives, employ millions of people and turn every individual into an advocate for clean air and drinkable water. We must demand that politicians accept climate science and make bold commitments before it is too late.”

The targeted areas of this contribution include Kenya, Somalia, the United States and the Amazon.

Last year, Leonardo met with the U.S. President Donald Trump and discussed the issue of climate change and ways to boost the economy by adopting greenways. While Trump promised to watch the actor’s movie ‘Before the Flood’, there is a lot more than this which needs attention, to tackle the issue and from many countries around the world.

After witnessing some unexpected decisions by the U.S government to handle the issue, there is a great need of attention by other countries such as France, Australia or Russia to take a big move towards it.

2017 recorded as the most active hurricane season

Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans in 2005 and caused an estimated damage of $211 billion. The four hurricanes this year –Harvey, Irma, Jose and Maria – have already put the estimated destruction at $200 billion, and it is not the peak of the hurricane season yet.

The hurricane season still has two months to go and four more Category 4 storms are expected. According to the National Hurricane Center data, September 2017 has been the most active hurricane season, with the cyclone-energy index at 155.4, which is 0.4 higher than September 2004.

In a given year, normally 12 tropical storms are known to form in the Atlantic. However, the weather data shows abnormal activity taking place this year as there have been 13 tropical storms by now. Four of these have been major hurricanes, greater than Category 3 and have caused landslides along with structural damage costing billions.
The US National Hurricane Center data tracked hurricane damage since 1900, putting 2017 second to 2005 in the most expensive damage and it is not even the peak yet. The hurricane season ends on November 30; therefore, the full cost of the major hurricanes this year is yet to be estimated since more hurricanes are on the way through the Atlantic, one expected to be major.

The data may have incomplete information because the authorities are still unable to reach the areas with deep floods, strong winds and enormous piles of debris. Despite improvements in weather forecasting, this season has proved to be deadlier. In 1900’s, around 12,000 people had perished due to inaccuracies in forecasts and feeble warnings, damaging $104 billion worth infrastructure.

The US has experienced the deadliest hurricanes this decade, the deadliest being since 2005. Back in 1928, Lake Okeechobee in Florida overflowed due to Category 4 hurricane, causing 15-feet floods and leaving 2,500 dead. Hurricane San Felipe took 2,748 lives in 1928 in Puerto Rico and Florida.

This year, Irma has reported to have been the most powerful, Category 5 hurricane with winds at 295 kph, devastating the northern parts of Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, compared to 185 mph winds of Florida Key storm in 1935; 190 mph of hurricane Allen in 1980 and Wilma in 2005.

The ocean water needs to be warm enough to cause a hurricane; an after-effect of global warming, Irma was a degree warmer than average of 25 degrees Celsius.
The 2017 hurricane season is recorded as the strongest in 139 years of US history. The unusual changes in Atlantic Ocean would bring more hurricanes, therefore; making 2017 the most expensive in infrastructural damage. The poor concrete in several states is not able to withhold the strong winds and power is many areas may remain out for more than a month.

This season has, however, been less deadly because of advancements in meteorological equipment, mainstream media and social media expansion. The people were warned just in time resulting in an evacuation of 7 million people – the largest in US mass migration history and crises. With improved satellites, there has been more observation of hurricanes than what was possible, let’s say, a century ago.    

Nonetheless, the full extent of the damage is yet to be discovered.